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Since its discovery in 1779, glycerine, also known as glycerin or glycerol, has been used extensively in
pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. It has a wide variety of uses, including being an antimicrobial preservative, solvent, emollient, humectant and sweetener.
It is environmentally safe and occurs naturally in animal and vegetable fats and oils, many of which are consumed as part of a normal diet. The glycerine that is used in topical products can be produced synthetically or from vegetable sources, but is most commonly produced as a by-product of
the meat industry.
Prior to use in topical products, glycerin is purified, with most manufacturers of topical medicines using pharmacopeia grade glycerine.
Glycerin occurs naturally in the skin and comes from the circulation, the breakdown of sebum triglycerides and topical application. Changes in skin hydration have been shown to correlate with
Glycerin has a significant role in cell proliferation, skin hydration, skin elasticity, barrier recovery and lipid synthesis, while also playing a role in wound healing.
Extracted from Science in Practice
What are the soap noodles uses ?
The soap noodles uses are:
- to manufacture toilet soap bars or bath soaps
- to manufacture laundry soap bars
- to manufacture Bath or Shower Gel or Cream
- to manufacture translucent soaps
At the manufacturing plant soap noodles are added with fragrance, pigments and many other components their own specifications of soaps. The simplified process enable manufacturers to make variety of soaps with different fragrances and features.
As is true for most human discoveries, the first chemical saponification was found by chance. According to a Roman legend, SOAP was discovered accidentally near Mount Sapo, an ancient location for animal sacrifices not far from Rome.
The animal fat, mixed with wood ashes (the ancient source of alkali) and rainwater, created an extraordinary soap mixture. Roman housewives noticed that the strange yellow mixture of
the Tiber’s waters made their clothes cleaner and brighter than ordinary water.
It is surprising that in spite of technical achievements and scientific developments, classic soap is still based on the same chemistry as that of ancient soaps.
Soap is chemically defined as the alkali salt of fatty acids. In general parlance, the term “soap” has taken on a more functional definition, by which any cleansing agent, regardless of its chemistry, is considered a Soap.
source : science direct
Fat and alkali are the two primary raw materials needed to manufacture soap. Depending on the intended application of the soap, sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide is generally used as an alkali.
If potassium hydroxide is used, it produces a more water-soluble product than its sodium-based counterpart, and is thus often called “soft soap”.
In the early days, raw animal fat (tallow) obtained from slaughterhouses was used directly, but modern-day soap manufacturing processes mostly involve the use of processed fat. In this way, many impurities are eliminated.
Many vegetable fats like palm oil, olive oil, coconut oil etc. are also being used in soap manufacturing.
To enrich the colour and texture of the soap, additives are often used. Similarly, to supplant the foul odour generated through the manufacturing of soap, perfumes and fragrances are added to the soap mixture.
Saponification can be defined as a “hydration reaction where free hydroxide breaks the ester bonds between the fatty acids and glycerol of a triglyceride, resulting in free fatty acids and glycerol,” which are each soluble in aqueous solutions.
This process specifically involves the chemical degradation of lipids, which are not freely soluble in aqueous solutions. Heat-treated lipid residues are more difficult to remove than non heat-treated residues due to polymerization.
Saponification plays a critical role in cleaning lipids which are present in process areas involving cell growth and cell processing, such as bacterial fermentation and cell disruption process.
An alkali is a soluble salt of an alkali metal like sodium or potassium, originally, the alkalis used in soap making where obtained from the ashes of plants, but they are now made commercially.
The common alkalis used in soap making are sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also called caustic soda’ and potassium hydroxide (KOH).
Total Fatty Matter (TFM) is one of the most important characteristics describing the quality of soaps and it is always specified in commercial transactions.
How your soap affects your well being? Higher TFM ensures that soaps are least harmful to the skin and do not cause dryness; in “bathing” bars.
Less TFM means very harmful soap, that soap will grasp all the moisture present in the skin making it dry. As skin becomes dry it may become more sensitive and prone to rashes, infections and skin breakdown.
Bathing soaps are classified into three grades:
- Grade 1: soaps should have 76% minimum TFM
- Grade 2: soaps should have 70% minimum TFM and
- Grade 3: 60% minimum TFM.
For laundry soaps, they are classified in two grades.
- Grade 1: 62% minimum TFM and
- Grade 2: 50% minimum TFM
Simply put, higher the Total Fatty Matter (TFM) of soap better is its cleansing ability.
Fatty acids are merely carboxylic acids with long hydrocarbon chains. The hydrocarbon chains length may vary from 10-30 carbons (mostly 12-18). The non-polar hydrocarbon alkaline chain is an important counterbalance to the polar acid functional group.
In acids with only a few carbons, the acid functional group dominates and gives the whole molecule a polar character. However, in fatty acids, the non-polar hydrocarbon chain gives the molecule a non polar character.